Akshay Suresh Thekkath
Akshay Thekkath

Akshay Thekkath

Vuex - Part I - Introduction

Vuex - Part I - Introduction

Component Communication & Introduction to State Management

Akshay Suresh Thekkath's photo
Akshay Suresh Thekkath
·Sep 27, 2021·

4 min read

Subscribe to my newsletter and never miss my upcoming articles

I believe data passing is the most fundamental concept while building frontend applications. You build your application by breaking it down into components and, these components should communicate with each other. They communicate with each other by passing data between them. In other words, they are sharing their current state.

Parent to child communication

When a parent component wants to send some data to the child component, props are used. The child component defines what props it expects and the parent component injects the values into the child component using props.

Parent to child communication

The ChildComponent expects cityId and cityName as props and displays it.

// ChildComponent.vue
<template>
  <div>
    <p>City Id: {{ cityId }}</p>
    <p>City Name: {{ cityName }}</p>
  </div>
</template>

<script>
export default {
  props: ["cityId", "cityName"],
};
</script>

The ParentComponent has myCityId and myCityName defined in the data. While using the ChildComponent, myCityId andmyCityName are passed in the cityId and the cityName props respectively.

// ParentComponent.vue
<template>
  <div>
    <ChildComponent :city-id="myCityId" :city-name="myCityName" />
  </div>
</template>

<script>
import ChildComponent from "@/components/ChildComponent.vue";

export default {
  components: {
    ChildComponent,
  },

  data() {
    return {
      myCityId: 1,
      myCityName: "Mumbai",
    };
  },
};
</script>

Child to parent communication

When any event triggers in the child, the parent may want to know about this. This is done using the $emit function. The most common use case you will come across is where you have a list of items in your parent component and each list item is rendering a child component. The child component may have some functionalities in itself and any events in the child component should be notified to the parent component.

Child to parent communication

Let's say we have a button and on its click, we want to pass this data to the parent.

In the click method, we call this.$emit(EMIT_EVENT_NAME, DATA_FOR_THE_PARENT), so here we call this.$emit("on-select-city", { cityId: this.cityId })

// ChildComponent.vue
<template>
  <div>
    <p>City Id: {{ cityId }}</p>
    <p>City Name: {{ cityName }}</p>
    <button @click="onSelectCity">Select City</button>
  </div>
</template>

<script>
export default {
  props: ["cityId", "cityName"],
  methods: {
    onSelectCity() {
      this.$emit("on-select-city", {
        cityId: this.cityId,
      });
    },
  },
};
</script>

The ParentComponent is rendering a list of cities and each city is rendered using a ChildComponent. While defining the ChildComponent, it also mentions it to listen to an event named on-select-city. This event name is the emit event name which was used in the ChildComponent. The method in the ParentComponent which was tied to the @on-select-city event receives the payload.

// ParentComponent.vue
<template>
  <div>
    <ChildComponent
      v-for="city in cities"
      :key="city.id"
      :city-id="city.id"
      :city-name="city.name"
      @on-select-city="onClickSelectCity"
    />
  </div>
</template>

<script>
import ChildComponent from "@/components/ChildComponent.vue";

export default {
  components: {
    ChildComponent,
  },

  data() {
    return {
      cities: [
        { id: 1, name: "Mumbai" },
        { id: 2, name: "Chennai" },
        { id: 3, name: "Delhi" },
      ],
    };
  },

  methods: {
    onClickSelectCity(payload) {
      console.log(`City ID: ${payload.id} was selected ...`);
    },
  },
};
</script>

Sibling components communication

The sibling components cannot share data directly with each other. If Child A wants to send some data to Child B, the Child A will have to emit the data to the Parent and the Parent will have to pass this data using props to Child B.

Sibling communication

This works just fine. But once your application grows bigger and the number of components increases, this method becomes difficult to manage and maintain.

large app comm

Imagine passing data from B to A or C to D using the props and emit method. It definitely will be a nightmare!

Global State Management - Vuex

If you notice, all the issues of managing and passing the data are because the state of each component is in the component itself. Since multiple pieces are of state are scattered all across the application and this application grows in size, the complexity increases. If we can extract the state out of the components and manage it as one global instance, this is where Vuex comes in.

Vuex serves as a centralized store for all the components in an application, with rules ensuring that the state can only be mutated in a predictable fashion.

Flux libraries are like glasses: you’ll know when you need them. - Dan Abramov, the author of Redux

To start using, first install Vuex.

A store is the most important piece of Vuex which holds the application state. Stores are reactive and components that get their state from the store will reactively and efficiently update according to the store's state changes.

Let's create an empty store. The store consists of the state, getters, mutations, and actions (which will be elaborated in the upcoming parts of this series).

// store/index.js
import Vue from "vue";
import Vuex from "vuex";

Vue.use(Vuex);

export default new Vuex.Store({
  state: {},

  getters: {},

  mutations: {},

  actions: {},
});

Register this store in the main.js file.

// main.js
import Vue from "vue";
import App from "./App.vue";
import router from "./router";
import store from "./store";

Vue.config.productionTip = false;

new Vue({
  router,
  store,
  render: (h) => h(App),
}).$mount("#app");

That's it. Now the store is ready to use.

I hope you understood basic component communication using props and $emit, where it lacks, and where Vuex comes in. In the next part, we'll see how to use the state and the getters.

Thanks for reading!

 
Share this